The hull has seven compartments and the stand-off distance between the outer and inner hulls is considerable, reducing the possible inner hull damage. The submarine’s anti-ship missiles are the Novator SS-N-15 Starfish and the Novator SS-N-16 Stallion. Seven Akula I submarines were commissioned between 1986 and 1992, and three Improved Akula between 1992 and 1995. Utilising newly-designed anechoic coatings, isolated structures and a new propulsor design, the Virginia-class submarines boast an acoustic signature lower than the Russian Akula-II class submarines, equivalent to that of the Seawolf-class submarines that they were designed to replace. [11] All were retrofitted with the SOCKS hydrodynamic sensors except Volk. Removed from service 1998. India to get Nerpa Akula-II N-submarine this year: Russian Official 21 Jun, 2011, 10.06 PM IST. Sappiamo che gli Akula Progetto 971U K-337 Kuguare e K-333 Rys ed il Progetto 971 K-480 Ak Bars sono stati trasformati in Borei. Articles with dead external links from November 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Russian and Soviet navy submarine classes, "The Ship Day to be celebrated at SSN Kuzbass", http://rusnavy.com/news/navy/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=8610, "Specification: SSN Akula Class (Bars Type 971) Attack Submarine, Russia", http://web.archive.org/web/20110605033644/http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/akula/specs.html, "Typhoon (Akula) class (Project 941/941U) (Russian Federation) - Jane's Fighting Ships", http://articles.janes.com/articles/Janes-Fighting-Ships/Typhoon-Akula-class-Project-941-941U-Russian-Federation.html, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/971.htm, http://www.harpoondatabases.com/Sensor.aspx?DB=5&ID=420, "Armament "MGK-500" automated sonar complex", "Incendie à bord d'un sous-marin nucléaire russe désaffecté | Russie | RIA Novosti", http://fr.rian.ru/russia/20100219/186095660.html, http://rusnavy.com/nowadays/strength/k-317.htm, http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/deep.htm, "Armament "MGK-540" automated sonar complex", "Russian-built nuclear submarine joins Indian navy", http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-india-17606829, http://ria.ru/defense_safety/20130327/929163548.html, http://rusnavy.com/news/navy/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=13696, http://en.rian.ru/military_news/20130501/180936810/Three-Russian-Nuke-Subs-to-Be-Recommissioned-in-2013.html, "Russia Hands Over Nerpa Nuclear Sub to India | Defense | RIA Novosti", http://en.rian.ru/mlitary_news/20120123/170896950.html, "K-152 Nerpa: Russian Akula II class nuclear attack submarine | INFOgraphics | RIA Novosti", http://en.rian.ru/infographics/20090729/155661233.html, "Russian Navy finally sets date of SSN Nerpa's leasing", http://rusnavy.com/news/navy/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=10131, "India in talks with Russia on lease of second nuclear submarine", http://www.thehindu.com/news/international/india-in-talks-with-russia-on-lease-of-second-nuclear-submarine/article4505333.ece, http://news.usni.org/2013/07/08/india-interested-in-leasing-second-russian-nuclear-attack-sub, "Indian nuclear submarine", India Today, July 2008 edition, "INS Chakra: Govt inducts Russian-origin Akula II class Nerpa into Navy - The Economic Times", http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics/nation/ins-chakra-govt-inducts-8000-ton-russian-origin-akula-ii-class-nerpa-into-navy/articleshow/12526102.cms, "INS Chakra formally inducted into Indian Navy : South, News - India Today", http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/ins-chakra-inducted-into-indian-navy/1/182955.html, "Russia may lease nuclear submarine to India", http://www.hindu.com/2006/07/01/stories/2006070118091800.htm, "Russia's new nuclear attack submarine starts sea trials | Russia | RIA Novosti", http://en.rian.ru/russia/20081027/117976941.html, "Accident on nuclear submarine kills 20 off eastern Russian coast", http://web.archive.org/web/20081126072837/http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/11/09/asia/russia.php, "Twenty dead in Russian nuclear submarine accident", http://en.rian.ru/russia/20081109/118211169.html, "Over 20 killed in Russian submarine accident | Russia | RIA Novosti", http://en.rian.ru/russia/20081109/118206261.html, "Accident on Russian Nuclear Submarine Kills 20", http://www.nytimes.com/reuters/world/international-us-russia-submarine.html?partner=rssnyt&emc=rss, "Russian Subs Patrolling Off East Coast of U.S.", http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/05/world/05patrol.html?_r=0, "Pentagon: Russian subs no cause for alarm", http://www.upi.com/Top_News/2009/08/06/Pentagon-Russian-subs-no-cause-for-alarm/UPI-23291249537740/?rel=35751345390615, "Two Russian Nuclear Submarines Make USA Shake With Fear", http://english.pravda.ru/world/americas/05-08-2009/108624-submarines-0/, "Pentagon Denies Russian Sub Patrolled Gulf of Mexico", http://news.usni.org/news-analysis/news/pentagon-denies-russian-sub-patrolled-gulf-mexico, "Reports of Russian sub in gulf downplayed", http://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2012/08/19/Reports-of-Russian-sub-in-gulf-downplayed/UPI-35751345390615/, "Russian submarine sailed incognito along the coast of the U.S.", http://english.pravda.ru/russia/politics/21-08-2012/121931-russian_sub-0/, Description of the class (as of 1999) at "SUBSIM Review", List of Soviet and Russian submarine classes, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Akula-class_submarine?oldid=4506600, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls, Pacific Fleet, removed from active service, status unclear. They are quieter than the original MGK-500 Skat sonar system on Akula-I is upgraded to the MGK-501 Skat-MS. Sources also disagree as to whether construction of this class has been suspended, or if there are a further two units planned. [8][9] The lead boat of the class, K-284 'Akula' was decommissioned in 2001, apparently to help save money in the cash-strapped Russian Navy. However, the induction was postponed to 2009 due to recurred delays caused by the installation of new systems and technologies on Nepra and due to an attack on the latest series of Schucka-B or Akula-II Class Russian-built submarines. Due to the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, production of all Akulas slowed. The 1999–2000 edition of Jane's Fighting Ships incorrectly listed the first Akula-II as Viper (the actual name is "Vepr", "wild boar" in Russian), commissioned November 25, 1995, Gepard (Cheetah), launched 1999 and commissioned December 5, 2001, and Nerpa, laid down in 1993[1] began sea trials in October, 2008 and was commissioned by the Indian Navy as INS Chakra II in April 2012. One of the pods is offset to port and the other to starboard. The Akula II is some meters longer and displaces about 700 tons (submerged displacement) more than the Akula I. The Russian Navy currently operates five Akula-class SSN’s in the Pacific and six in the Northern Fleet. These torpedo tubes are arranged in two rows of four tubes each. 21 Jun, 2011, 10.06 PM IST The Gepard is the most advanced Russian submarine before the submarines of the Severodvinsk and Borei classes are commissioned. [citation needed] I can be distinguished by the large dome on the top surface. The Improved Akula and Akula II have ten, with six 533mm tubes. RBS 15 Gungnir is the next-generation missile in the RBS 15 family of anti-ship missile systems offered by Saab Group.…, The P-3C Orion land-based maritime patrol and anti-submarine warfare aircraft is operational in the airforces of ten countries. A number of Russian Akula class submarines are deployed in the Pacific region. The 650 mm tubes can be fitted with liners to use the 533 mm weaponry. [33] This was the worst accident in the Russian navy since the loss of the submarine K-141 Kursk in 2000. Related: Leak may reveal Russia’s answer to the Virginia class attack submarine. Compared to the SIERRA-I, the -II model featured an enlarged sail with two rather than one escape pods in it. The Akula Class submarine was deployed for the first time in 1986 by the Soviet Navy. India has finalized a deal with Russia, in which at the end of the lease of these submarines, it has an option to buy them. On 27 October 2008, it was reported that K-152 Nerpa of the Russian Pacific Fleet had begun her sea trials in the Sea of Japan before handover under a lease agreement to the Indian Navy. The ship utelized similar layouts as both classes, but in a smaller more compact scale. The MGK-501 Skat sonar system on Akula-I is replaced to a new MGK-540 Skat-3 sonar system. Three additional boats the Belgograd and Kuguar launched in the late 1990s as Akula II class boats. The added space was used for additional quieting measures. [36], In August 2012, the news media reported that another Akula-class submarine operated in the Gulf of Mexico purportedly undetected for over a month, sparking controversy within U.S. military and political circles, with U.S. The submarine is also able to use its torpedo tubes to deploy mines. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. The submarine, renamed INS Chakra, was recommissioned by the Indian Navy in April 2012. One Akula III was built and put in service by the Russian Navy. A more subtle improvement is an enlarged main sonar, the same MGK-501 Skat passive array fitted to the larger AKULA Class. The submarine is rated for a diving depth to 600m. The Akula class, Soviet designation Project 971 Shchuka-B (Russian: Щука-Б, lit. Il risultato di questo sviluppo fu un sottomarino con lo scafo in acciaio, di prestazioni paragonabili ai classe Sierra, ma notevolmente più economico da costruire e da mantenere. May be completed and leased to India. The MGK-501 Skat sonar system on Akula-I is replaced to a new MGK-540 Skat-3 sonar system,. The Akula’s surface search radar is the Snoop Pair or the Snoop Half. They have a different arrangement of limber holes on the outer hull than Akula Is. The CEP value is a measure of the accuracy of strike on the target and is the radius of the circle within which half the strikes will impact. Project 971 Shuka-B Bars-class Akula class Attack Submarine (Nuclear Powered) The Project 971, using a steel hull, was initiated in 1976 when it became evident that existing industrial infrastructure was inadequate to mass produce the expensive titanium hulls of the Project 945 Sierra class. The hull of the “Akula” type II is longer than the type I; 2.5 meters and the weight is increased to 230 tons. The CEP (the circle of equal probability) is 150m. Information provided by sources varies widely. Bratsk and subsequent submarines have reactor coolant scoops similar to the ones on the Oscar IIs, short and (the Typhoon, Akula and Oscar classes use the similar OK-650 reactor). [citation needed]. The submarine has a double-hulled configuration with a distinctive high aft fin. The submarines were built by the Amur Shipbuilding Plant Joint Stock Company at Komsomolsk-on-Amur and by Sevmash at the Severodvinsk shipbuilding yard. The missiles are fired from the 533mm torpedo launch tubes. The Virginia-class submarines can, however, go one further. K-322 'Kashalot' and K-480 'Bars' [Currently Ak Bars] are in reserve. Seven Akula IIs were built and put in service by the Soviets and then the Russians. Six Akula I SSNs were built and put in service by the Soviets. The Akula class is a nuclear powered attack submarine of Soviet origin. India would receive its first new generation Nerpa Akula-II class nuclear attack submarine, which is undergoing sea trials in Russia. This allows more freedom in the design of the exterior hull shape, resulting in a submarine with more reserve buoyancy than its western analogs. Most Akulas have the SOCKS[citation needed] hydrodynamic sensors, which detect changes in temperature and salinity. Apalkov, Sankt Peterburg, 2003, ISBN 5-8172-0072-4. These include Akula I, improved Akula, and Akula II variants of the class. More than…, The Borei Class is a Russian fourth-generation nuclear-powered missile submarine. A reserve propeller system, powered by two motors rated at 370kW, provides a speed of 3kt to 4kt. 1:39. They were called Akula I, II, and II. [29] Missiles with ranges greater than 300 km (162 nmi; 186 mi) cannot be exported due to arms control restrictions, since Russia is a signatory to the MTCR treaty. Capabilities: The armament of the Akula II is identical to the original Akula class subs. Granit (Nato designation: SS-N-21 Sampson) has a range of about 3,000km and delivers a 200kt warhead. All Akulas are armed with four 533 mm torpedo tubes which can use Type 53 torpedoes or the SS-N-15 Starfish missile, and four 650 mm torpedo tubes which can use Type 65 torpedoes or the SS-N-16 Stallion missile. They have a maximum speed of 35kt submerged and a maximum diving depth of 600m. Mark, Mazzette; Thom Shanker (August 6, 2009). An improved version of the earlier Akula I, the -II is notable for its improved quieting. Apalkov, Sankt Peterburg, 2003, ISBN 5-8172-0070-8, Adm. Boorda, statement at a meeting of the Naval & Maritime Correspondents Circle, Washington, D.C. 27 Feb 1995, "Quieter Soviet subs cost U.S. at least $30 billion", Navy News & Undersea Technology (14 March 1988), Korabli VMF SSSR, Vol. The Akula II is three meters longer and displaces about 700 tons (submerged displacement) more than the Akula I. In Occidente sono conosciuti con … La Classe Akula, nome in codice NATO della classe di sottomarini nucleari sovietici Progetto 971 Ščuka-B, è entrata in servizio a partire dagli anni ottanta. The Soviet advances in sound quieting were of considerable concern to the West, for acoustics was long considered the most significant advantage in U.S. submarine technology compared to the Soviets. Pacific Fleet. [10] 'Pantera' returned to service in January 2008 after a comprehensive overhaul. RBS 15 Gungnir Next-Generation Anti-Ship Missile System, SSBN Borei Class Nuclear-Powered Submarines, DASA awards £3m funding for Intelligent Ship competition, Royal Navy commissions final Batch 2 River-class OPV HMS Spey, US Navy’s FRCE delivers last presidential helicopter engine, Saab to supply mine neutraliser for Anglo-French MMCM programme, BAE Systems to demonstrate new RFCM system for P-8A Poseidon. This design requires more power than single-hull submarines[citation needed] because of the greater wetted surface area, which increases drag. The retractable masts viewed from bow to stern are the periscopes, radar antennae, radio and satellite communications and navigation masts. The submarine is fitted with the MGK 540 sonar system which provides automatic target detection in broad and narrow-band modes by active sonar. Pacific Fleet, removed from active service, Since 2008 undergo overhaul and modernization. 1, Part 2, Yu. hauki, Nato-raportointinimi Akula) ovat Venäjän laivaston ydinkäyttöisiä hyökkäyssukellusveneitä.. Projekti 971-luokan aluksia on Venäjän laivastolla 14. Northern Fleet. The added space was used for additional quieting measures. [16], Three hundred Indian Navy personnel are being trained in Russia for the operation of the Akula II submarine Nerpa. Akula-II (project 971U) K-157 Vepr is the only completed Akula II [citation needed]. The Akula class was developed in the early 1980's in response to the US Los Angeles class and is considered a quantum leap forward in Soviet submarine technology. K-157 Vepr is the only completed Akula II[citation needed]. The land attack Granit missile uses inertial and terrain following guidance. Si tratta di battelli molto temibili, probabilmente i più moderni sommergibili nucleari d'attacco oggi in circolazione (insieme agli americani Seawolf). These are where the OK-300 auxiliary propulsion devices are located, which can propel the submarine at up to 5 knots (9.3 km/h). The external tubes are mounted outside the pressure hull in one row, above the torpedo tubes, and can only be reloaded in port or with the assistance of a submarine tender. Has been leased out to India from the end 2011 to 2020. Smaller, harder to detect, and more mobile, the last Akula II, the Open Aggression remained in operation until 3083, when it was finally sunk off the coast of South Africa. The white cheatline marks the boat's waterline. The sonar signal processor can detect and automatically classify targets as well as reject spurious acoustic noise sources and compensate for variable acoustic conditions. One of this class was used to complete the Borei SSBNs. pike ', NATO reporting name Akula) are a series of nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSNs) first deployed by the Soviet Navy in 1986. The Indian Navy signed an agreement with Russia to lease a new Akula II submarine, the SSN Nerpa, for ten years. An air defence capability is provided by a Strela SA-N-5/8 portable missile launcher with 18 missiles. Again, more noise reduction methods were employed. This design requires more power than single-hull submarines[citation needed]because of the greater wetted surface area, which increases drag. In fact, the Akula is credited with being quieter in a number of areas than even the 688i-series Los Angeles-class boats. At least two more were projected but were not built. The Akula class, Soviet designation Project 971 Shchuka-B (Russian: Щука-Б, lit. ' The Akula Class carry up to 12 Granit submarine-launched cruise missiles. Improved Akulas, Akula IIs have an additional six 533 mm torpedo tubes mounted externally, capable of launching possibly up to 6 decoys each[citation needed]. Delivery was further delayed due to a fatal gas leak causing the deaths of 20 crew members during sea trials in November 2008. Initially, the Akula II submarine was scheduled to be delivered to India in Augu… In Russia Akula means Shark. India to get Nerpa Akula-II N-submarine this year: Russian Official. [13] K-157 Vepr became the first Soviet submarine that was quieter than the latest U.S. attack submarines of that time, which was the Improved Los Angeles class (SSN 751 and later). Also, it has an enlarged sail and a different towed-array dispenser on the vertical fin. As with many Soviet/Russian craft, information on the status of the Akula Class submarines is sparse, at best. It is intended to eventually replace the ageing Delta III…, Type 23 Duke class frigates are multi-role warships built by Swan Hunter and BAE Systems for the UK’s Royal Navy.…, Get important industry news and analysis sent to your inbox – sign up to our e-Newsletter here, "Three Akula II submarines, with advanced machinery-quietening technology, have been built. [14] Two of these submarines were used to build the Borei class SSBNs. Senator John Cornyn of the Senate Armed Services Committee demanding details of this deployment from Admiral Jonathan W. Greenert, the Chief of Naval Operations. The main machinery consists of a VM-5 pressure water reactor rated at 190MW with a GT3A turbine developing 35MW. Projekt 971 Щука-Б suom. U.S. military sources noted that this was the first known Russian submarine deployment to the western Atlantic since the end of the Cold War, raising concerns within U.S. military and intelligence communities. The Stallion and the Starfish can be armed with a 200kt warhead or a type 40 torpedo. The surface search radar antennae are installed on the same mast as the Rim Hat radar intercept receiver. It is longer and has a larger displacement compared to the Akula II. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. It gives the range, relative bearing and range rate. The propulsion system drives a seven-bladed fixed-pitch propeller. K-335 Gepard is the only completed Akula III (see table for others)[citation needed](There is no AKULA III NATO classification). Nerpa and Iribis (not completed) have a different rescue chamber in the sail. The Vepr was built to further improved Project 971M (or Akula II class). The added space was used for an active noise reduction system. U.S Navy officials and Congressmen announced that this technology enabled the Soviet submarine builders to produce more accurate and quieter propellers.[15]. 'pike', NATO reporting name Akula) are a series of nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSNs) first deployed by the Soviet Navy in 1986. The Russian “Akula” type II nuclear attack submarine is an improved version of the “Akula” type I. While the “Vepr” is an Akula-II class vessel (project 971U), the other four ships belong to the slightly older class Akula-1 (project 971). La classe Borei I/II sfrutta le sezioni frontali degli Akula incompleti: la larghezza dello scafo coincide esattamente. Technical Specifications, Revision 01 Starfleet Corps of Engineering Originally built in the early to mid 23rd century, Akula class followed alot of the same design and equipment advances as both the Constitution Class and the Miranda class. Akula is a nuclear-powered attack submarine first deployed by the Soviet navy in 1986. The sonar system can also be used in a passive, listening mode for detection of hostile sonars. Construction of Akula II began in 1991, but it was suspended for a period of ten years due to lack of funds. The very low acoustic signature has been achieved by incremental design improvements to minimise noise generation and transmission – for example, the installation of active noise cancellation techniques. La classe Akula, nome in codice NATO della classe di sottomarini nucleari sovietici Progetto 971 Ščuka-B, è entrata in servizio a partire dagli anni ottanta. As a result, 20 people (17 civilians and 3 seamen)[31][32] were killed by asphyxiation. The Akula Mark-II submarine was a heavily-modified Akula-class attack submarine that was armed with a wide array of torpedoes, a stealth drive, and instead of nuclear warheads, its main armament was a massive Gungnir railgun cannon that fired high-explosive conventional warheads, with a blast radius of . All submarines before K-391 Bratsk have reactor coolant scoops that are similar to the ones of the Typhoon class SSBNs, long and tubular. The four 650mm tubes can be fitted with liners to provide additional 533mm weapon launch capacity. Martin Searle 546 views. The Stallion, fired from the 650mm tubes, has a longer range of up to 100km. The improved Akula I and Akula II are also designated as Project 971U and Project 971A respectively. The Akula is an attack helicopter based on the Boeing–Sikorsky RAH-66 Comanche, with a canopy that combines the aspects of the Kamov Ka-52 \"Alligator\" (front windows) and the Kamov Ka-50 “Black Shark” (side windows). The vessel was completed at the Komsomolsk-on-Amur shipyard and commissioned to the Russian Navy in December 2009. Three Akula II submarines, with hull length extended by 4m and advanced machinery-quietening technology, have been built. The name Akula (Акула meaning "shark" in Russian) is the Soviet designation of the ballistic missile submarine class designated by NATO as the Typhoon class submarine. The Russian Navy has 14 Bars Class project 971 submarines known in the West as the Akula Class nuclear-powered submarine, Amur Shipbuilding Plant, Komsomolsk and Sevmash, Severodvinsk, 28 Stallion and Starfish missiles, mk40 torpedoes, anti-submarine missiles and torpedoes in a range of variants, Strela portable missile – 18 missiles, Automated radio communication system
Combat control information system
General-purpose radar
Active and passive sonar, Commander's periscope
Air defence periscope. [30] On 8 November 2008, while conducting one of these trials, an accidental activation of the halon-based fire-extinguishing system took place in the fore section of the vessel. [12] The Akula-I Improved submarines have 6 533 mm decoy launching tubes, as do subsequent submarines. The submarine has eight torpedo launch tubes, four 650mm and four 533mm tubes. Construction of Akula II began in 1991, but it was suspended for a period of ten years due to lack of funds. The Russian Navy has 14 Bars Class project 971 submarines known in the West as the Akula Class nuclear-powered submarines (SSN). Whereas the Russian Navy's Akula-II could be equipped with 28 nuclear-capable cruise missiles with a striking range of 3,000 km (1,620 nmi; 1,864 mi), the Indian version was reportedly expected to be armed with the 300 km (162 nmi; 186 mi)-range 3M-54 Klub nuclear-capable missiles. The added space was used for additional quieting measures. Projekti 971 "Štšuka-B"-luokan sukellusveneet (ven. The Starfish, fired from the 533mm tubes, has a target range of 45km. All Akulas have two T-shaped doors on the aft bottom of the hull, on either side[citation needed]. The Akula II is some meters longer and displaces about 700 tons (submerged displacement) more than the Akula I. Elsie Raven 647,259 views. K-480 'Bars' was put into reserve in 1998,[1] and is being dismantled in February 2010. The six Akulas of this class are all thought to be in service. Improved Akula-I Hulls: K-328 Leopard, K-461 Volk, K-154 Tigr, K-419 Kuzbass, K-295 Samara and K-152 Nerpa. Boat Nepra began sea trials in … The Akula can launch a range of anti-submarine and anti-surface vessel torpedoes. 2:16. [26] INS Chakra was officially inducted into the Indian Navy on April 4, 2012.[27][28]. These submarines are much quieter than early Akula class submarines and all have the SOCKS hydrodynamic sensors except Leopard. The Akula incorporates a double hull system composed of an inner pressure hull and an outer "light" hull. ", "The Akula Class submarines carry up to 12 Granit submarine-launched cruise missiles.". The oldest submarine, Akula I, is likely to be removed from service by 2015, while the Gepard Akula II is expected be withdrawn from service by 2025. The four known variants within the Akula class. Dozens of others suffered freon-related injuries and were evacuated to an unknown port in Primorsky Krai. The propulsion system provides a maximum submerged speed of 33kt and a surface speed of 10kt. Of the seven original Akula-I submarines, only three are known to still be in service. Line drawing showing the starboard side of the Project 971 (Akula) Soviet submarine. India would receive its first new generation Nerpa Akula-II class nuclear attack submarine, which is undergoing sea trials in Russia. The submarine itself did not sustain any serious damage and there was no release of radiation. This allows more freedom in the design of the exterior hull shape, resulting in a submarine with more reserve buoyancy than its western analogs. Construction halted at 60% completion. The submarine kit “AKULA-II“, 1/96 scale . for display model or R/C conversion "Scale Model Ship" offers you a submarine kit of the Project 971 “Schuka-B” (SSN “Akula-II” class).

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